Like Amida and Edessa (qq.v.), in the fifth and sixth centuries Martyropolis was one of the great frontier fortresses beyond the Euphrates River (q.v.). The Persian king Kavad (qq.v.) captured it in 502 and held it for several years. Justinian I's (q.v.) rebuilding of its fortifications was of little help, for in 589 the city was betrayed to Chosroes II (q.v.). It changed hands again, before the Persians seized it from 602-622. After the Arabs (q.v.) captured it in 640, Martyropolis no longer played much of a role in Byzantine affairs, despite brief occupations by John Kourkouas (q.v.) in 942, and by George Maniakes (q.v.) in 1032.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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